3 Ways Volunteers Vicarious Liability Can Improve Your Business | Volunteers Vicarious Liability

2 Football Association ‘The FA civic game, accompaniment of the bold in numbers 2015’ at 1–5.



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The Miracle Of Vicarious Liability Volunteers | Vicarious .. | volunteers vicarious liability

The Miracle Of Vicarious Liability Volunteers | Vicarious ..

The Miracle Of Vicarious Liability Volunteers | Vicarious .. | volunteers vicarious liability

3 Coles, R ‘Football as a agent religion’ in Hill, M (ed) A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain (London: SCM, 1975) p 3.

4 Eg Ekstrand, J, Hägglund, M and Waldén, M ‘Injury accident and abrasion patterns in able football’ (2009) 45 British Journal of Sports Medicine 553.



5 For an addition to a contextual access see Twining, W Law in Context, Enlarging A Discipline (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997) ch 3; Selznick, P ‘Law in ambience revisited’ (2003) 30 JLS 177; Cranston, R ‘Law and society: a altered access to acknowledged education’ (1978–79) 5 MULR 54.

6 What has been accounting about occurs aural broader capacity on sports law/torts: eg Cox, N ‘Civil accountability for abhorrent comedy in sport’ (2003) 54 NILQ 351 at 366–367; James, M Sports Law (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2nd edn, 2013) pp 81–83; Gardiner, S et al. Sports Law (Abingdon: Routledge, 4th edn, 2012) pp 505–506; Gardiner, S Sports Law in the United Kingdom (Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer, 2014) pp 34–35. For a notable barring see James, M and McArdle, D ‘Player violence, or agitated players? Commissioned accountability for sports participants’ (2004) 12 TLR 131. Agenda that non-player agent accountability is already dealt with in abundant of the commissioned accountability literature, and (non-player) advance accountability has been dealt with elsewhere.

7 Ibid, James and McArdle, predates the appliance of the Lister v Hesley Hall [2001] UKHL 22, [2002] 1 AC 215 jurisprudence to the sports acreage and additionally abounding cogent changes to the law of commissioned liability.

8 Gravil v Carroll [2008] EWCA Civ 689, [2008] ICR 1222; James, aloft n 6, p 81.

9 [1985] 1 WLR 866 at 867 per Lord Donaldson MR; James, aloft n 6, p 69.

10 Simms v Leigh Rugby Football Club Ltd [1969] 2 All ER 923; Wright v Cheshire County Council [1952] 2 All ER 789; Cleghorn v Oldham (1927) 43 TLR 465; Wooldridge v Sumner [1963] 2 QB 43; Wilks v Cheltenham Homeguard Motor Cycle & Ablaze Car [1971] 1 WLR 668; Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850.

11 Brewer v Delo [1967] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 488; Lewis v Brookshaw [1970] 120 NLJ 413; there is additionally an Irish case: McComiskey v McDermott [1974] IR 75.

12 [1985] 1 WLR 866 at 867 per Lord Donaldson MR.

13 James, aloft n 6, p 69.

14 Eg Kevan, T, Adamson, D and Cottrell, S Sports Personal Injury: Law and Practice (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 2002).

15 Cox, aloft n 6, at 354.

16 Baroness Grey-Thompson ‘Duty of affliction in sport: absolute address to government’ (April 2017) at 26.

17 Jones, M (ed) Clerk and Lindsell on Torts (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 21st edn, 2014) paras [3-119]–[3-120].

18 [2004] EWCA Civ 814, [2004] 1 WLR 2844 at [21].

19 Wattleworth v Goodwood Road Racing Co Ltd [2004] EWHC 140 (QB), [2004] PIQR P25.

20 Caldwell v Maguire [2001] EWCA Civ 1054, [2002] PIQR P6.

21 Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850; Advantage Act 2006, s 1; Social Action, Responsibility and Heroism Act 2015, s 2; cf Mulheron, R ‘Legislating dangerously: bad samaritans, acceptable society, and the Heroism Act 2015’ (2017) 80 MLR 88; Goudkamp, J ‘Restating the accustomed law? The Social Action, Responsibility and Heroism Act 2015’ (2017) 37 LS 577.

22 Caldwell v Maguire [2001] EWCA Civ 1054, [2002] PIQR P6; Condon v Basi [1985] 1 WLR 866; Griffith-Jones, D and Randall, N ‘Civil accountability arising out of accord in sport’, ch H7 in Lewis, A and Taylor, J Sport: Law and Practice (Haywards Heath: Bloomsbury, 3rd edn, 2014) para [H7.48].

23 Eg McCord v Cornforth and Swansea City Football Club (1997) Times, 11 February; Watson and Bradford City Football Club v Gray and Huddersfield Town Football Club (1998) Times, 26 November.

24 Eg KR v Royal Sun Alliance [2006] EWCA Civ 1454, [2007] Lloyd’s Rep IR 368; Beresford v Royal Exchange Assurance [1938] AC 586.

25 Beloff, M et al. Sports Law (Oxford: Hart, 2nd edn, 2012) para [5.82].

26 Agenda Elliott v Saunders and Liverpool Football Club (10 June 1994, unreported) High Court.

27 Griffith-Jones and Randall, aloft n 22, para [H7.2].

28 [2003] EWCA Civ 318, [2003] 1 WLR 1607.

29 James and McArdle, aloft n 6, at 144, fn 32.

30 Cane, P Atiyah’s Accidents, Advantage and the Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 7th edn, 2006) p 230.

31 Eg Mattis v Pollock [2003] EWCA Civ 887, [2003] 1 WLR 2158; MM v Newlands Manor School [2007] EWCA Civ 21, [2007] ELR 256 (junior rugby: overage, billowing abecedarian called for team).

The Miracle Of Vicarious Liability Volunteers | Vicarious ..

The Miracle Of Vicarious Liability Volunteers | Vicarious .. | volunteers vicarious liability

32 Woodland v Swimming Teachers Association [2013] UKSC 66, [2014] AC 537. See about Stevens, R ‘Non-delegable duties and commissioned liability’ in Neyers, J, Chamberlain, E and Pitel, S (eds) Emerging Issues in Abomination Law (Oxford: Hart, 2007) ch 13; Morgan, J ‘Vicarious accountability for absolute contractors?’ (2015) 31 PN 235.

33 Smoldon v Whitworth & Nolan, [1997] ELR 249; Allport v Wilbraham [2004] EWCA Civ 1668.

34 Vowles v Evans and Welsh Rugby Union [2003] EWCA Civ 318, [2003] 1 WLR 1607.

35 Van Oppen v Clerk to the Bedford Charity Trustees [1990] 1 WLR 235

36 Watson v British Boxing Board of Control Ltd [2001] QB 1134; Wattleworth v Goodwood Road Racing Co Ltd, aloft n 19; A gar v Hyde [2000] HCA 41, 201 CLR 552. Agenda additionally the Charleroi action apropos a affirmation by a Belgian club adjoin FIFA in affiliation to abecedarian abrasion during an all-embracing match; this led to FIFA and UEFA authoritative accouterment for advantage to clubs in approaching all-embracing competitions.

37 Various Claimants v Catholic Child Welfare Association (‘CCWS’) [2012] UKSC 56, [2013] 2 AC 1 at [19] per Lord Phillips.

38 Cox v Ministry of Justice [2016] UKSC 10, [2016] AC 660 at [1] per Lord Reed.

39 Morgan, P ‘Vicarious accountability on the move’ (2013) 129 LQR 139, accustomed by Allen & Others v The Chief Constable of the Hampshire Constabulary [2013] EWCA Civ 967 at [17] per Gross LJ.

40 Particularly Bazley v Curry [1999] 2 SCR 534.

41 [2001] UKHL 22, [2002] 1 AC 215.

42 [2002] UKHL 48, [2003] 2 AC 366 at [23] per Lord Nicholls.

44 CCWS; Cox, aloft n 38; Mohamud v Wm Morrison Supermarkets Plc [2016] UKSC 11, [2016] AC 677.

45 ST v North Yorkshire County Council [1999] LGR 584.

46 Eg Keppel Bus Company v Sa’ad bin Ahmad [1974] 1 WLR 1082; Daniels v Whetstone Entertainments [1962] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 1; Warren v Henlys Ltd [1948] 2 All ER 935; Rose, F ‘Liability for an employee’s assaults’ (1977) 40 MLR 420. There were, however, some attenuate exceptions to this rule: Fennelly v Connex South Eastern Ltd [2001] IRLR 390; Vasey v Surrey Free Inns Plc [1996] PIQR P373; Pettersson v Royal Oak Hotel [1948] NZLR 136.

47 Mattis v Pollock [2003] EWCA Civ 887, [2003] 1 WLR 2158; Bernard v The Attorney General of Jamaica [2004] UKPC 47, [2005] IRLR 398; Wallbank v Wallbank Fox Designs Ltd [2012] EWCA Civ 25, [2012] IRLR 307; Yeung Mei Hoi v Tam Cheuk Shing [2015] 2 HKLRD 483, [2015] HKEC 403; Brown v Robinson [2004] UKPC 56; Mohamud v Wm Morrison Supermarkets Plc [2016] UKSC 11, [2016] AC 677.

48 Morgan, P ‘Revising commissioned liability: a bartering perspective’ [2012] LMCLQ 175, accustomed in JGE v English Province of Our Lady of Charity [2012] EWCA Civ 938, [2013] QB 722 at [56] per Ward LJ.

49 [2002] UKHL 48, [2003] 2 AC 366,

50 [2010] EWCA Civ 256, [2010] 1 WLR 1441.

51 [2010] EWCA Civ 1207, [2011] IRLR 343.

52 [2012] EWCA Civ 938, [2013] QB 722.

53 [2012] UKSC 56, [2013] 2 AC 1.

55 Elliott v Saunders and Liverpool Football Club, aloft n 26; McCord v Cornforth and Swansea City Football Club (1997) Times, 11 February; Watson and Bradford City Football Club v Gray and Huddersfield Town Football Club (1998) Times, 26 November; Pitcher v Huddersfield Town Football Club (2001) WL 753397; Gaynor v Blackpool Football Club [2002] CLY 3280.

56 Ibid, Pitcher v Huddersfield Town Football Club and Gaynor v Blackpool Football Club.

57 Sharp v Highland and Islands Fire Board [2005] SLT 855.

58 Leebody v Ministry of Defence [2001] CLY 4544.

60 Beloff et al, aloft n 25, para [5.81].

61 Racz v Home Office [1994] 2 AC 45; Makanjuola v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis [1989] 2 Admin LR 214.

63 Rogers v Bugden and Canterbury Bankston Club [1993] Aust Torts Rep 181.

64 [2008] EWCA Civ 689, [2008] ICR 1222.

67 For altercation of these justifications see Stevens, R Torts and Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) pp 258–259; Brodie, D ‘Enterprise liability: answer commissioned liability’ (2007) 27 OJLS 493, Brodie, D Enterprise Accountability and the Accustomed Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010); Giliker, P ‘Making the appropriate connection: commissioned accountability and institutional responsibility’ [2009] TLJ 76; Giliker, P Commissioned Accountability in Tort, A Comparative Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010); Atiyah, P Commissioned Accountability in the Law of Torts (Butterworths: London, 1967); Morgan, P ‘Recasting commissioned liability’ (2012) 71 CLJ 615; Neyers, J ‘A approach of commissioned liability’ (2005–2006) 43 Alta L Rev 287.

69 Wallbank v Wallbank Fox Designs Ltd [2012] EWCA Civ 25, [2012] IRLR 307; Yeung Mei Hoi v Tam Cheuk Shing [2015] 2 HKLRD 483, [2015] HKEC 403.

70 Mattis v Pollock [2003] EWCA Civ 887, [2003] 1 WLR 2158.

71 Maga v Birmingham Roman Catholic Archdiocese Trustees [2010] EWCA Civ 256, [2010] 1 WLR 1441; N v Chief Constable of Merseyside Police [2006] EWHC 3041 (QB); P Morgan ‘Distorting commissioned liability’ (2011) 74 MLR 932.

72 [2015] EWHC 2862 (QB).

75 [2014] EWCA Civ 116, [2014] 2 All ER 990.

76 [2015] EWHC 2862 (QB) at [149].

79 [2012] EWCA Civ 25, [2012] IRLR 307.

81 Mohamud at [35] per Treacy LJ.

84 [2016] UKSC 11, [2016] AC 677.

88 Plunkett, J ‘Taking banal of commissioned liability’ (2016) 132 LQR 556; Morgan, P ‘Certainty in commissioned liability: a adventure for a chimaera?’ (2016) 75 CLJ 202; Ryan, D ‘“Close connection” and “akin to employment”: perspectives on 50 years of abolitionist developments in commissioned liability’ (2016) 56 IJ 239; Chan, S ‘Hidden abandonment from the Lister abutting affiliation test’ [2016] LMCLQ 352.

89 Prince Alfred College Incorporated v ADC [2016] HCA 37.

90 Bellman v Northampton [2016] EWHC 3104 (QB).

92 McKendrick, E ‘Vicarious accountability and absolute contractors – a re-examination’ (1990) 53 MLR 770 at 784; Kidner, R ‘Vicarious liability: for whom should the “employer” be liable?’ (1995) 15 LS 47; Deakin, S, Johnston, A and Markesinis, B Markesinis and Deakin’s Abomination Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 6th edn, 2007) p 698; Weir, T An Addition to Abomination Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edn, 2006) pp 107–108; Stevens, aloft n 67, p 268; JGE at [59] per Ward LJ. Cf Atiyah, aloft n 67, p 33.

93 Eg Mersey Docks and Harbour Board v Coggins & Griffith (Liverpool) Ltd [1947] AC 1; Viasystems (Tyneside) Ltd v Thermal Transfer (Northern) Ltd [2005] EWCA Civ 1151, [2006] QB 510.

94 Kennedy v Pender & Narooma Rugby League Football Club (2002, unreported) NSW District Court (cited by Kevan, Adamson, and Cottrell, aloft n 14, pp 16–17).

95 Whilst in Vowles v Evans the Welsh Rugby Union accustomed that they would be vicariously accountable for an abecedarian referee’s torts, such a appropriate action acknowledgment (as analogously fabricated in Maga in the ambience of a priest/bishop relationship) is not the aforementioned as accepting that this is an application relationship, but rather that the accord may be acceptable to activate commissioned liability. In the ablaze of the consecutive case of Gravil this acknowledgment fabricated in Vowles may accept been accessible to catechism at the time of the case as a amount of law, but this acknowledgment may accept been all-important to advance the amicableness of abecedarian referees, and their connected volunteering.

98 Harris, J ‘A antic chance’ (2012) 162 NLJ 1248 at 1249.

99 Watts, P and Reynolds, F (eds) Bowstead and Reynolds on Agency (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 20th edn, 2016) para [8-176].

100 Eg Ormrod v Crossville [1953] 1 WLR 1120; and Launchbury v Morgans [1973] AC 127, but not exclusively, see for instance League Adjoin Cruel Sports Ltd v Scott and Others [1986] QB 240; Moores v Bude-Stratton Town Council [2001] ICR 271; and S v Attorney General [2003] NZCA 149.

101 Launchbury v Morgans [1973] AC 127 at 135 per Lord Wilberforce.

102 Giliker Commissioned Accountability in Tort, aloft n 67, p 110.

103 [1953] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 613.

104 Agenda Judge Thomas, at 618.

105 The columnist is not abandoned in suggesting that this class may accomplish commissioned accountability for abecedarian sportspersons, see Griffith-Jones and Randall, aloft n 22, para [H7.17].

106 Cox, aloft n 38; NA v Nottinghamshire County Council [2015] EWCA Civ 1139, [2016] QB 739; A v Trustees of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Association [2015] EWHC 1722 (QB).

107 See Morgan, aloft n 67, at 625–640.

108 [2012] EWCA Civ 938, [2013] QB 722.

109 [2012] UKSC 56, [2013] 2 AC 1.

112 At [49]; agenda Kidner, aloft n 92.

116 Moody, S ‘Policing the autonomous sector: acknowledged issues and advance vetting’ in Dunn, A (ed) The Autonomous Sector, The States and the Law (Oxford: Hart, 2000) pp 53–54; Garton, J The Regulation of Organised Civil Association (Oxford: Hart, 2009) p 100; Charity Commission ‘Charities and Insurance’ (CC49, 2012) 5.

118 Garton, aloft n 116, states that accustomed the present justifications for commissioned liability: accident conception or enhancement, there can be commissioned accountability for volunteers. cf D Brodie Enterprise Accountability and the Accustomed Law, aloft n 67, p 12, who additionally autograph above-mentioned to these decisions states ‘the acts of volunteers who are not advisers do not accord acceleration to commissioned liability’. No affidavit are accustomed for this statement.

119 Agenda Morgan, aloft n 67.

120 United States Restatement (Third) of Agency, 2006, § 7.07 (3), 82 ALR 3d 1213. See for instance Scottsdales Jaycees v Superior Court of Maricopa County (1972) 17 Ariz App 571, 499 P2d 185; Garcia v Herald Tribune Fresh Air Fund (1976) 51 App Div 2d 987, 380 NYS2d 676; Baxter v Morningside Inc (1974) 10 Wash App 893, 521 P2d 946; Trinity Lutheran Church Inc v Miller (1983) Ind App 451, NE2d 1099; South Australia Volunteers Protection Act 2001, s 5(1).

121 [1975] IR 192. Agenda additionally Hickey v McGowan [2017] IESC 6.

122 Scottish Law Commission Unincorporated Associations Scot Law Com No 217 (Edinburgh: SLC, 2009) paras [1.4], [2.2]; Stewart, N, Campbell, N, and Baughan, S The Law of Unincorporated Associations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) para [1.09].

123 [2008] EWCA Crim 1970, [2009] PTSR 119 at [11].

127 Ashworth v Stanwix 121 ER 606, (1860) 3 El & El 701.

129 Atiyah, aloft n 67, p 117.

130 Atiyah, aloft n 67, p 3.

132 Giliker Commissioned Accountability in Tort, aloft n 67, p 104.

134 Ibid, at [46] per O’Donnell J; Morgan, aloft n 39.

135 Bawtree, D and Kirkland, K Charity Administration Handbook (London: Bloomsbury, 5th edn, 2013) para [2.14].

139 Atiyah, aloft n 67, pp 12–28. For added altercation of commissioned accountability approach see Stevens, pp 257–259; Neyers; Giliker Commissioned Accountability in Abomination pp 227–254; Brodie, all aloft n 67.

141 Various Claimants v Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools [2010] EWCA Civ 1106.

144 The columnist briefly avant-garde this point in Morgan, aloft n 39, which has accustomed extrajudicial abutment from Lord Hope in ‘Tailoring the law on commissioned liability’ (2013) 129 LQR 514 at 526.

145 Stapleton, J ‘Tort, allowance and ideology’ (1995) 58 MLR 820; Morgan, J ‘Tort, allowance and incoherence’ (2004) 67 MLR 384; cf Merkin, R ‘Tort, allowance and ideology: added thoughts’ (2012) 75 MLR 301. For altercation see Merkin, R and Steele, J Allowance and the Law of Obligations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) ch 8.

146 Baker, T ‘Liability allowance as abomination regulation: six means that accountability allowance shapes abomination law in action’ (2005) 12 Conn Ins LJ 1.

147 Eg Lewis, R ‘Insurance and the abomination system’ (2005) 25 LS 85.

148 For criticisms of accident overextension justifications see Stevens, pp 258–259 and Neyers, 296–297, both aloft n 67. Agenda that commissioned accountability as a avant-garde article pre-dates (non-marine) accountability allowance (Ibbetson, D A Historical Addition to the Law of Obligations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) pp 69–70; Baker, J An Addition to English Acknowledged History (London: Butterworths, 4th end, 2002) p 410, and the accepting of accident overextension (Witt, J The Accidental Republic (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004)).

149 Football Association ‘Standard Code of Rules 2016–17’ Rule 22. The Rules are binding for all Competitions at Step 7 of the Civic League System and below, and the FA Women’s Pyramid excluding the FA Women’s Super League.

150 Football Association ‘Standard Code of Rules for Youth Competitions 2016–17’ Rule 22.

153 Ibid, ‘Group Personal Accident Insurance’, Summary of Benefits.

157 Bluefin, NGIS, ‘Legal Accountability Insurance’ Countycover Policy Summary, Exclusions, p 6.

160 Heidt, R ‘The unappreciated importance, for baby business defendants, of the assignment to settle’ (2010) 62 Me L Rev 75 at 92; Baker, T ‘Blood money, new money, and the moral abridgement of abomination law in action’ (2001) 35 Law and Soc’y Rev 275; Cane, aloft n 30, pp 224–225.

161 See about Grey-Thompson, aloft n 16, at 26.

162 For acumen proofing see LoPucki, L ‘The afterlife of liability’ (1996–1997) 106 Yale LJ 1; White, J ‘Corporate acumen proofing: a acknowledgment to Lynn LoPucki’s “the afterlife of liability”’ (1997–1998) 107 Yale LJ 1363; LoPucki, L ‘Virtual acumen proofing: a rejoinder’ (1997–1998) 107 Yale LJ 1413; LoPucki, L ‘The capital anatomy of acumen proofing’ (1998–1999) 51 Stan L Rev 147; Schwarcz, S ‘The inherent applesauce of acumen proofing’ (1999–2000) 52 Stan L Rev 1; Schwarcz, S ‘Judgment proofing: a rejoinder’ (1999–2000) 52 Stan L Rev 77.

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